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Category Archives: Democracy & Citizenship

Civil Participation in Decision-Making

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  The 1068th meeting of the Council of Europe’s Committee of Ministers’ Deputies on 20 and 21 October 2009 adopted a Declaration by the Committee of Ministers on the Code of Good Practice for Civil Participation in the Decision-Making Process calling on governments, parliaments, local and regional authorities in the member states to take due account […]

Is High Speed Internet Connection a Right or Human Right?

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States have not or have differently regulated the right to Internet access. The Christian Science Monitor at states about Estonia that the State has made Internet access a human right. Wikipedia writes that also France, Greece and Finland have made Internet access a human right. While also the United Nations supports making Internet Access […]

On Naturalism and Positivism in International Law

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  I told the students at the Tallinn University very briefly about the history and theory of international law today. I have always (at least after having become aware of those) wanted to stress the relation between the still leading conceptions of international law – naturalism and positivism. Having the Peter Malanczuk’s book as a […]

First Human Rights Class with a New Group – Updated

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This Friday (9/11) I began with the “Protection of Human Rights under EU Law” course with a new group of students at the University of Tartu. The students in this group are from different universities – From Estonia (University of Tartu), Georgia (Tbilisi State University), Lithuania (Vytautas Magnus University), Poland (Jagiellonian University) and Turkey (Ege […]

Codified and Uncodified Constitutions and Constitutional Treaties

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Assuming that unwritten means not codified at all and codified means written, although not in one, but different documents, it seems correct to say that Estonia has a codified Constitution, and that the United Kingdom has uncodified Constitution.   Different understandings of constitutions made me think that different states may understand differently also the theories of […]

Some Reflections on Modern Views on Constitutionalism

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I just finished reading a SSRN article „Heller High Water? The Future of Originalism“ by Jamal Greene.   Originalism is generally understood so that the Constitution has a fixed and knowable meaning, established during its travaux préparatoires (a related question – what was exactly established?). Understood so that interpretation of a written constitution should conform to […]

Fostering Freedom of Expression and Combating Bureaucracy

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My sister’s husband, Andreas, is a teacher. He and his colleague recently finished a video introducing their school (actually a film about their school): Im Trüben gefischt: My sister Kristina is a teacher, too. The International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) composed by UNESCO distinguishes between different levels, groups and fields of education: Level 0 – […]

On the Possibility to Reach Consensus

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My “little” sister Kristina married Andreas in 1995. The couple has three wonderful children – Solveig, Karolin and Sebastian. Each of them is a person. But persons tend to have their personal opinions on how things are and ought to be. Sometimes I wonder how does this three-headed group reach consensus.       An […]

The Common Frame of Reference and Consciousness?

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It is Sunday today – traditionally a day for reflection and Family, and I thought I should put up my Granny’s picture.   Agnes Tomson, born Kösta in 1905, died in 2003 (the year I graduated from the LL.M. Programme at the University of Helsinki), she lived her whole life at countryside in Central Estonia. Having lost her […]

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